The PamChip 4

The PamChip 4 contains 4 peptide arrays as shown on the right and is processed on the PamStation12. It is available with either phosphotyrosine kinase (PTK) or serine-threonin kinase (STK) arrays and reagents. For collaborations with PamGene's researchers, a Nuclear receptor (NHR) array is also available.

The surface of the PamChip microarrays is composed of aluminum oxide. This material is approximately 60 μm thick and has a porous structure with long branched interconnected capillaries with a diameter of about 200 nm. This 3D surface provides unique characteristics to allow real-time analysis of nucleic acid and protein binding for allows enzymatic reactions of kinases to be followed kinetically.

Essentially, the sample consisting of protein and labelled antibodies are dispensed onto the PamChip, which is placed in the PamStation12. Once inside the instrument the sample is hybridized or incubated at a pre-determined temperature. During hybridization or incubation the sample is pumped back and forth through the porous material to maximize binding kinetics and minimize assay time. Reaction times are typically minutes to an hour.

Due to the size of the pores, the maximum distance of the target and probe molecules is reduced to 100 nm, thereby eliminating diffusion as a factor in the hybridization, protein binding or in enzymatic reactions. Upon wetting of the surface material of the PamChip microarrays becomes translucent. This allows for imaging during, or at the end of, hybridization using a LED imaging system.

The three-dimensional surface of the PamChip is designed to allow peptide substrates to be deposited at higher concentrations than conventional arrays.

“We can immobilize much more material per square millimetre than other flat materials,”
- Rob Ruijtenbeek
Right image, from Nature Vol 32, 2004