From Genomics to Proteomics
In the last decade(s) our understanding of signaling processes has evolved especially in the field of cancer.
Sources: Hanahan D, Weinberg RA. Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation. Cell. 2011 Mar 4;144(5):646-74; Hanahan D, Weinberg RA. The hallmarks of cancer. Cell. 2000 Jan 7;100(1):57-70.

The traditional view of DNA, RNA to proteins has in recent years been complemented with epigenomics, involvement of microRNAs and focus on protein function and post-translational modifications in order to understand cellular mechanism and devise strategies for new targeted treatments. The effects of energy metabolism, evading immune destruction, influence of the tumor microenvironment have lead to new insight and new treatment modalities in various diseases including cancer. Cancer cells, by deregulating these signals, become masters of their own destiny. The precise identities and sources of cancer growth and the interplay with normal tissues remain an area of intense research.

Protein kinases & signal transduction

Example: EGFR signalling pathway
Source: Biocarta Pathways
 
Protein Kinases are key controllers of most biochemical pathways and important in health and disease. Over 160 protein kinases are associated with human diseases, and several dozen are the targets of drugs in development or already approved.

A protein kinase is an enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them (phosphorylation). Phosphorylation usually results in a functional change of the target protein (substrate) by changing enzyme activity, cellular localization, or interaction with other proteins. The human genome contains over 500 protein kinase genes constituting ~2% of the human genome. Up to 30% of all human proteins are estimated to be modified by kinase activity, and kinases are known to regulate the majority of cellular pathways, especially those involved in signal transduction.
Kinases & cancer

Kinases are an important drug target for treating cancer. They are involved in signal transduction. In cancer, the functioning of several protein kinases is altered, often deregulating cell division and thus contributing to tumour expansion and metastasis. More than two hundred kinase inhibitors have been or still are tested in more than 2500 clinical trials. In 2011, more than 300 clinical trials were started with 19 in Phase III which should expand the 14 already approved set of kinase inhibitors (NIH Clinical trials).
 
The kinase activity arrays from PamGene allow you to study kinase activities in many different tissues and other samples. You can read more in the Technology section. Do contact us to find out how PamGene technology can help advance your research on kinases and related topics!